“The commission made no findings that these issues would have stopped the attack,” Ms. Ardern stated in remarks that had been echoed by different company chiefs who spoke to reporters.

Still, Ms. Ardern apologized “on behalf of the government” for failings among the many intelligence companies and the lax firearms licensing system. Within a month of the assaults, Ms. Ardern handed legal guidelines in Parliament outlawing all of the weapons that Mr. Tarrant had used.

The bloodbath 21 months in the past prompted a nationwide outpouring of grief and love, thrusting New Zealand, and Ms. Ardern, who has been praised for her compassion, onto the world stage. It additionally provoked a reckoning with the consequences of far-right radicalization on-line: Mr. Tarrant broadcast video of his assault dwell on Facebook and printed a racist manifesto steeped in trolling and far-right memes.

In March of this yr, the terrorist abruptly pleaded responsible to all costs he confronted over the assaults on the Al Noor and Linwood mosques, averting a deliberate trial. In August, he was sentenced to life in jail with out the possibility of parole, the primary time such a sentence had been handed down in New Zealand.

His act of contrition generated reduction amongst these bereaved over the assault and its survivors.

But given the mass of proof that the police had gathered that was by no means aired in court docket, their comfort quickly gave option to questions: about how Mr. Tarrant may have traveled so extensively and deliberate his assault at such size with out detection, given the scrutiny they are saying their mosques had acquired by the intelligence companies.

The Royal Commission — which occurred behind closed doorways because it interviewed politicians, public servants, Muslim residents and others — was considered by some as their final probability for solutions. But they had been anxious about whether or not the report would include the data they sought.

“In New Zealand, inquiries are to tell the government what happened so the government can fix it, even when it’s the government that’s being inquired into,” stated Andrew Geddis, a legislation professor at Otago University, Dunedin. Unlike the 9/11 fee into the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist assaults in New York and on the Pentagon, Mr. Geddis added, the investigation was not written for the New Zealand public — and even for victims of the assault.