First Raise a Flag: How South Sudan Won the Longest War however Lost the Peace
By Peter Martell
On July ninth, 2011, South Sudan hoisted its flag amidst wild celebrations. Africa’s largest nation was splitting into two, and the South Sudanese individuals have been tasting freedom for the primary time of their historical past. The elevating of the flag in Juba ended greater than 20 years of a civil battle that had claimed tens of millions of lives. Yet the frenzy of independence wouldn’t final ceaselessly. To the frustration of many, South Sudan, descended into one other lethal civil battle about two years later. Peter Martell’s First Raise a Flag explains why.
Martell’s work is an exposition on how the pursuit of nationhood and statehood turned a wrestle for survival. He writes that “beneath the rhetoric of democracy, freedom, equality, and justice, there was no social contract between the government and the people” (p.xx). Rather than the consciousness of nationhood and equipment of statehood, South Sudan has a “simple system where the military men in charge [buy] the loyalties and services they [need] from cash taken from oil.” Instead of creating the nation, South Sudanese oil cash funds a “brutal capitalist dictatorship of greed where the people’s dreams [are] squandered for power” (p.xxi).
Ten years earlier than independence, Martell had been a BBC correspondent within the Horn of Africa. This account derives from historic archives, eye-witnesses accounts, interviews with overseas brokers, ex-British colonial officers, help staff with colonial attitudes of Africans, and well-meaning residents caught within the wrestle for a greater life amidst bleak prospects. Despite his prolonged resume of labor in Eastern Africa, Martell is a khawaja, South Sudanese for “foreigner.” While Sudanese elder Joseph Bading granted Martell permission to inform the story to the world (p.xix), First Raise a Flag stays an African story advised by a British correspondent. Martel has an undoubtable proper to compile the narrative, however few Africans would write this sort of historical past. While the give attention to civil battle is heavy and uncomfortable, the honesty of his report and the credibility of his sources enchantment to the reader’s ethos. In First Raise a Flag, Martel pens what is maybe his magnum opus in telling and displaying why South’s Sudan’s pursuit of statehood, nationhood, and peace descends into battle.
The narrative of First Raise a Flag evokes Adam Hochschild’s King Leopold’s Ghost, by which Hochschild explores the greed and savagery of colonial Africa in a fashion that’s accessible to students and the general public alike. Another historic journalistic work of equal measure is Philip Gourevitch’s We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families which highlighted grotesque particulars of a household bothered by the Rwandan genocide. Like these two, First Raise a Flag is meticulously researched, revelatory, engrossing with perception, and unflinching in power and elegy.
Martell’s retelling of South Sudanese and, by extension, Sudanese historical past, reads like a posh novel. In Sudan, the Blacks developed a shared identification from centuries of battle, slavery, and violence by defying the outsiders who dedicated ills (p.10). Racial discrimination and struggling united the southerners towards Arabs. Yet their oppositional identification was not salient sufficient to create a nation. When the battle for independence was at its cusp, fissures in ethnic identities emerged, and the political class started to scramble for energy. As self-rule approached in 2005, tensions arose. Cattle rustling, sponsored and aided by enemies and native elites, turned commonplace. The weapons that had gained the battle on freedom now turned on the individuals they’d helped. According to Martell, the “bond was based more on what South Sudan was not – its enemies – than what it was, its people. Not being Arab was useful for recruitment in the liberation war, but it was a thin and dangerous bond to unite a new nation” (p.162).
One power of First Raise a Flag is that it doesn’t supply shallow excuses for why South Sudanese independence was doomed. Martell doesn’t totally blame the politicians in Juba, nor does he condemn the British colonial officers or Khartoum elites. He performs the position of the impartial reporter, educating readers concerning the origins of the present quagmire. The Europeans, from tales advised by the Greeks and Romans, had labeled Sudan a “lost world,” populated by individuals with “faces in their chests” (p.19). Nineteenth-century Ottomans Arabs and Turks violently raided the area, promoting individuals and elephant tusks to the Middle East and immediately killing resistors. The Dinka described these occasions as “the time when the world was spoiled” (p.25).
The British changed the Arabs and reluctantly occupied South Sudan after the Mahdists resistance in Khartoum. South Sudan attracted well-educated, adventurous, and upper-class British colonial officers nicknamed “the Bog Barons,” incomes the area the epithet “Blacks ruled by Blues” (p.39). The British officers slowed the slave-trade however shaped an apartheid system that separated the north from the south and restricted the motion of residents throughout the boundary. The British had hoped that “behind such a barrier, the Southern peoples would develop until they were able to stand on their own two feet and meet Northerners on equal terms” (p.40). In reality, the areas have been separate and unequal with a thriving north and stagnating south. Slavery remained the spine of the northern financial system below the model of “bonded labor” (p.39). Northerners thought of the south a zoo (p.50).
In the Nineteen Fifties, the clamor for independence resurrected visions for a greater future within the south. British colonial directors weighed the opportunity of conjoining South Sudan to Uganda and Kenya as a part of a British East Africa. Southern elders championed full independence, which was impractical because the area had no infrastructure. Eventually, they bullied South Sudan into forming an unbiased Sudan. The Bog Barons determined to go away Southern Sudan within the arms of elite Arabs from Khartoum who systemically disenfranchised, eradicated, and underdeveloped the south. Martell writes that “independence in Sudan was like telling people to stand on the edge of a precipice and take a step forward” (p.51).
One of First Raise a Flag’s authentic contributions is its detailed account of the worldwide actors who facilitated the 2 wars of independence. Anya-Nya, the primary secessionist try, which started in 1963, was led by Joseph Lagu, who sought assist from the Mossad of Israel by means of an apartheid-hating, pro-Israel undercover agent referred to as Tarzan. The rebels had no weapons apart from poisoned arrows and braveness (p.72). An intricate Cold War dynamic led to advanced alliances and rivalries involving Cuba, Congo, Israel, Kenya, Ethiopia, Libya, Egypt, USSR, Eritrea, and Uganda. Each participant approached the area with particular pursuits, which generally altered. For instance, Gaddafi shifted from backing the southern secessionists to preventing them in lower than a decade. Ethiopia’s Haile Selassie adopted a impartial place, however Mengistu Hailemariam absolutely supported the secessionists upon Selassie’s ouster. As regional nations entered the theatre, the battle turned a “tit for tat chaos” realpolitik of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” (p.91).
In August 1983, a military unit referred to as the Torit Mutiny began a second civil battle (p.107). American educated economist Dr. John Garang deserted his publish as an economics professor on the University of Khartoum to combat within the Sudanese Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA). Garang envisioned an SPLM that aimed toward altering Sudan into what he referred to as “New Sudan” (p.178). He had mentioned, “Our objectives are very clear: We are fighting for a united Sudan within a democratic context” (p.113). Yet inside SPLA, the concept of the “New Sudan” was not universally accepted. The battle turned fratricidal, pitting varied factions and totally different ethnic teams towards one another. Riek Machar, who acquired a doctorate in strategic planning from Bradford in Britain, led probably the most threatening group of all. Machar wielded an alliance with Khartoum, splitting the rebels and establishing a brand new faction that divided the Southern Sudanese alongside ethnic traces: Nuers versus Dinkas (p.113).
With the southerners preventing amongst themselves, northern militias raided their villages. They enslaved kids, promoting them to the CIA for $50 every. The CIA rescued them however, within the course of, enabled the follow (p.142). These strategies enraged Christians and human rights activists alike. Beginning in 2000, the United States led campaigns to the tip battle in Sudan. It was a curious case of an alliance involving Christian evangelicals, democracy proponents, African American anti-slavery teams, and celebrities, who all mounted strain till Sudan achieved independence in 2011.
The crux of Martell’s First Raise Flag is that South Sudan was set to fail. Everyone pretended that Sudan could be an distinctive democratic experiment. However, there was ample proof that the nation was hardly prepared for independence and self-rule (p.4). The desired final result was merely not possible as a result of South Sudan lacked the experience, construction, nationhood, and resilience crucial for independence. The nation’s leaders have been victims of battle and inhuman remedy who had by no means witnessed higher governance. In South Sudan throughout the CPA, Martell writes, it paid to turn into a insurgent and declare a spot within the “big tent” (p.187). Corruption in Sudan is a operate of historical past by which collective traumas go by means of centuries of brutalization and neglect. South Sudan’s journey as a nation can be facilitated by the exuberant power of the peculiar of us, the hopefulness of kids, and its residents’ bravery. Despite Martell’s dedication to South Sudan, a greater future won’t be the work of outsiders however the voices of indigenes about their tales and aspirations. First Raise a Flag, provides to the rely of African tales advised by foreigners.